Animal Geneticist Career Profile

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5 February 2024

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What is an animal geneticist?

An animal geneticist is a scientist who specializes in the study of genetics in animals. This field involves understanding the genetic makeup, inheritance patterns, and variations within animal species. Animal geneticists may work with both domesticated and wild animals, and their research can have implications for various areas, including agriculture, veterinary medicine, conservation, and human health.

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Alternative Names

While “animal geneticist” is a specific term for professionals specializing in the genetics of animals, individuals working in related fields or with specific focuses may have alternative titles. Some of these alternative names include:


While this term is broad and can encompass the study of genetics in any organism, a geneticist may specialize in animals.

Animal Breeder:

Professionals who focus on selectively breeding animals to enhance specific traits or characteristics.

Population Geneticist:

Scientists who study the genetic composition and changes within populations of animals.

Conservation Geneticist:

Experts working on the preservation of genetic diversity in Endangered species and contributing to conservation efforts.

Molecular Geneticist:

Individuals who focus on the molecular aspects of genetics, including the study of genes and DNA sequences in animals.

Livestock Geneticist:

Specialists in the genetics of domesticated animals, particularly those involved in agriculture and livestock production.

Wildlife Geneticist:

Scientists studying the genetics of wild animals, often involved in wildlife conservation and management.

Genomic Scientist:

Professionals working with the entire genome of animals, exploring the genetic makeup comprehensively.

Animal Biotechnologist:

Individuals working at the intersection of genetics and biotechnology to develop novel applications, such as genetic engineering or cloning, in animals.

Veterinary Geneticist:

Experts specializing in the genetics of animals with a focus on veterinary medicine.

These terms can sometimes overlap, and the specific title may depend on the individual’s research focus, job responsibilities, or the context of their work. The field of animal genetics is diverse, and professionals may adopt titles that reflect their specific expertise or areas of interest within the broader realm of genetics and animal science.

Career Categories

The Animal Geneticist career can be found in the following career categories:

  • Health

Animals worked with?

Although livestock are mostly used in genetic research, there are geneticists research wildlife, such as reptiles, amphibians.

Market value?

The Genetics Market is worth close to US$ 5 billion, and grows at around 6% per year.

What does an Animal Geneticist do?

Groups of animals an Animal Geneticist works with

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Farm Animals
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Reptiles List Icon OZT
Amphibians List Icon OZT
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Animal geneticists work with a wide variety of animals, encompassing both domesticated and wild species. The specific type of animals an animal geneticist focuses on depends on their research interests, goals, and the applications of their work. Here are some categories of animals that animal geneticists might work with:

Domesticated Livestock:

This includes animals raised for agriculture, such as cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, and goats. Animal geneticists in this category may work on improving traits related to productivity, disease resistance, and other economically important characteristics.

Companion Animals:

Animal geneticists may study the genetics of pets like dogs, cats, and horses. This research can be related to Breed development, genetic disorders, and traits important for companion animal well-being.

Laboratory Animals:

Some animal geneticists focus on animals commonly used in research settings, such as mice, rats, rabbits, and zebrafish. They may work on understanding genetic factors relevant to medical research or experimental purposes.


Conservation geneticists focus on wild animal populations, studying their genetic diversity, migration patterns, and responses to environmental changes. This can include endangered species, birds, mammals, and other wildlife.

Aquatic Species:

Fish and other aquatic organisms may be the subject of genetic research, especially in the context of aquaculture and fisheries. Geneticists may work on improving traits like growth rates, disease resistance, and overall aquaculture sustainability.


Insect geneticists may study the genetics of beneficial or harmful insects, such as bees, mosquitoes, or agricultural pests. This research can have applications in pest control, pollination, and disease prevention.

Exotic and Zoo Animals:

Animal geneticists may collaborate with zoos and wildlife parks to study and manage the genetics of exotic species, ensuring the health and genetic diversity of captive populations.

Avian Species:

Birds, both domesticated (like chickens and turkeys) and wild, can be the focus of genetic research. This includes studies related to traits important for poultry farming and conservation efforts for endangered bird species.

Reptiles and Amphibians:

Some animal geneticists may work with reptiles and amphibians, exploring their genetic makeup and contributing to the conservation of endangered species.

The diversity of animals studied by animal geneticists reflects the broad range of applications and interests within the field, including agriculture, medicine, conservation, and basic scientific research.

What is the level of Interaction with the Animals?

With who does an Animal Geneticist work?

Animal geneticists often collaborate with various professionals, researchers, and stakeholders in different fields. The nature of their work involves interdisciplinary cooperation to address diverse aspects related to genetics, breeding, and animal science. Here are some of the key individuals and groups with whom animal geneticists may collaborate:


Collaboration with veterinarians is essential, especially when working with animals in clinical settings. Animal geneticists may work together with veterinarians to understand and address genetic disorders, diseases, and overall animal health.

Farmers and Livestock Producers:

Animal geneticists working in agriculture often collaborate with farmers and livestock producers. This collaboration aims to improve breeding programmes, enhance the productivity of livestock, and address specific needs in animal agriculture.

Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists:

For those studying wild animals or contributing to conservation efforts, collaboration with zoologists and wildlife biologists is common. This collaboration helps in understanding the behaviour, ecology, and genetic diversity of wild animal populations.


Animal geneticists involved in advanced genetic technologies, such as genetic engineering or cloning, may collaborate with biotechnologists. Together, they work on developing and implementing cutting-edge genetic tools and techniques.


Collaboration with conservationists is crucial for animal geneticists focusing on preserving genetic diversity in endangered species. Together, they develop strategies to maintain healthy populations and prevent the loss of genetic variation.

Genomic Researchers:

For those specialising in genomics, animal geneticists may collaborate with researchers in the broader field of genomics. This includes professionals working on sequencing technologies, bioinformatics, and large-scale genomic analysis.

Researchers in Related Fields:

Animal geneticists may work with researchers in fields such as agriculture, biology, ecology, and veterinary medicine to gain a holistic understanding of the genetic factors influencing animals.

Government Agencies:

Collaboration with government agencies, such as agricultural departments or wildlife conservation organisations, is common. Animal geneticists may provide expertise and research findings to inform policy decisions related to animal genetics and breeding.

Animal Breed Associations:

Animal geneticists working with specific breeds often collaborate with breed associations. These organisations play a role in maintaining breed standards, managing studbooks, and promoting the interests of particular breeds.


Some animal geneticists are involved in academia by teaching and mentoring students. They may collaborate with other educators and researchers to advance knowledge in the field and train the next generation of scientists.

Industry Partners:

Animal geneticists in the private sector may collaborate with companies involved in animal breeding, biotechnology, or agriculture. These collaborations can lead to the development of new products or technologies for the benefit of the industry.

The collaborative nature of animal genetics reflects the need to integrate knowledge and expertise from various disciplines to address the complex challenges and opportunities within the field.

What does an Animal Geneticist focus on?

The focus of an animal geneticist may include the following:

Breeding Programmes:

Animal geneticists often work on improving the genetic traits of domesticated animals through selective breeding programmes. This could involve enhancing traits such as disease resistance, productivity, or other desirable characteristics.

Genetic Diseases:

Identifying and understanding genetic disorders in animals is another aspect of their work. This knowledge can be crucial for developing strategies to prevent or manage these diseases.


In the case of endangered species, animal geneticists may contribute to conservation efforts by studying the genetic diversity within populations and developing strategies to maintain or increase genetic diversity.

Genomic Research:

With advancements in genomic technologies, animal geneticists may conduct research involving the analysis of entire genomes. This can provide insights into the genetic basis of various traits and behaviours.


Animal geneticists may also work in the field of biotechnology, contributing to developments such as genetic engineering or cloning for specific purposes, such as producing animals with enhanced agricultural traits.

Genetic Markers:

Identifying and utilising genetic markers is a common practice in animal genetics. These markers can be used for parentage verification, breeding programmes, and studying population genetics.

Overall, animal geneticists play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of the genetic factors that influence the traits and characteristics of animals.

What are the daily tasks of an Animal Geneticist?

The daily tasks of an animal geneticist can vary based on their specific area of focus, whether it’s in research, academia, agriculture, conservation, or another field. Here are some common tasks that animal geneticists may perform on a day-to-day basis:

Research Planning:

Animal geneticists often plan and design research projects. This includes defining research objectives, developing experimental protocols, and outlining data collection methods.

Data Collection:

Depending on their research, animal geneticists may collect genetic samples from animals, such as blood, tissue, hair, or saliva. They may also collect data related to observable traits, behaviours, or environmental factors.

Laboratory Work:

In cases where genetic analyses are involved, animal geneticists may spend time in the laboratory conducting experiments, DNA sequencing, genotyping, or other molecular biology techniques.

Data Analysis:

Analysing genetic data is a significant part of the job. Animal geneticists use statistical methods, bioinformatics tools, and specialised software to interpret and draw conclusions from their research data.


Maintaining accurate and detailed records of experiments, data, and results is crucial. This documentation is essential for the replication of studies, publication, and future reference.

Literature Review:

Staying informed about the latest research in animal genetics is important. Animal geneticists regularly review scientific literature to stay updated on advancements in the field and incorporate relevant findings into their work.


Animal geneticists often communicate their research findings through scientific papers, presentations, and reports. They may also collaborate with colleagues, attend conferences, and engage in discussions with other researchers and professionals.

Teaching and Mentoring:

For those in academia, teaching and mentoring students is a common daily task. This involves preparing lectures, conducting classes, advising students, and overseeing research projects.


Animal geneticists frequently collaborate with other researchers, veterinarians, farmers, conservationists, and professionals in related fields. Collaboration helps to enrich research, share expertise, and apply genetic knowledge in practical settings.

Grant Writing:

Securing funding is crucial for research projects. Animal geneticists may spend time writing grant proposals to obtain financial support for their studies from government agencies, foundations, or private organisations.


Some animal geneticists may conduct fieldwork to observe and collect data directly from animals in their natural habitats or managed environments. This is particularly common for those studying wild or agricultural species.

Problem Solving:

Animal geneticists may encounter challenges during their research, and problem-solving skills are essential. They may need to troubleshoot experimental procedures, address unexpected issues, and adapt their approaches to overcome obstacles.

These tasks collectively contribute to advancing scientific knowledge, improving breeding practices, addressing genetic disorders, and promoting the sustainable use of genetic resources in various animal populations.

The working Environment of an Animal Geneticist

Where does an Animal Geneticist work?

The working environments and places of employment for animal geneticists can vary depending on their specific roles, areas of expertise, and employment settings. Here’s a breakdown of indoor and outdoor working environments and potential places of employment:

Indoor Working Environments:


Many animal geneticists spend a significant amount of time in laboratories, conducting experiments, performing genetic analyses, and utilising molecular biology techniques.

Office Spaces:

Animal geneticists often have office spaces where they conduct data analysis, write research papers, prepare grant proposals, and engage in communication with colleagues.

Classrooms and Lecture Halls:

Those working in academia may spend time teaching classes, preparing lectures, and mentoring students in indoor educational settings.

Conference Rooms:

Attending and presenting at conferences is common for animal geneticists, providing opportunities to share research findings and network with other professionals.

Meeting Rooms:

Collaborative work and discussions with colleagues, researchers, and stakeholders often take place in meeting rooms.


Conducting literature reviews, gathering background information, and staying updated on the latest research are activities that may lead animal geneticists to spend time in libraries.

Animal Facilities:

Some indoor spaces may include facilities for housing and caring for animals involved in genetic research, especially in laboratory or breeding programmes.

Outdoor Working Environments:

Fieldwork Locations:

Animal geneticists studying wildlife or working in agriculture may spend time in outdoor environments, collecting samples, observing animals, and gathering data in their natural habitats or managed settings.

Farms and Agricultural Settings:

Those involved in livestock genetics may visit farms and agricultural facilities to assess breeding programmes, collect genetic samples, and provide expertise to farmers.

Conservation Areas:

Animal geneticists focused on conservation may work in outdoor settings such as nature reserves, national parks, or other protected areas to study and monitor wild animal populations.

Places of Employment:

Universities and Research Institutions: Many animal geneticists work in academic settings, conducting research, teaching, and mentoring students at universities or research institutions.

Government Agencies:

Animal geneticists may be employed by government agencies, such as departments of agriculture, wildlife, or environmental agencies, where they contribute to policy development and conservation efforts.

Private Industry:

Animal geneticists may work for private companies involved in animal breeding, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, or agricultural genetics.

Zoos and Wildlife Parks:

Some animal geneticists collaborate with zoos and wildlife parks to contribute to the genetic management and conservation of captive animal populations.

Veterinary Clinics and Hospitals:

Those with a focus on veterinary genetics may work in veterinary clinics or hospitals, contributing to the diagnosis and management of genetic disorders in animals.

Nonprofit Organizations:

Animal geneticists may be employed by nonprofit organizations focused on conservation, animal welfare, or specific genetic research initiatives.


Some animal geneticists work as consultants, providing expertise to various organisations, breed associations, or businesses on matters related to animal genetics.

The working environment and place of employment for an animal geneticist can be diverse, ranging from indoor laboratory settings to outdoor fieldwork locations, depending on their specialisation and the nature of their research or responsibilities.

What is the average annual salary of an Animal Geneticist?

It’s important to note that salaries for animal geneticists can vary based on factors such as experience, education, location, industry, and the specific employer. The figures provided here are approximate averages:

North America:

USA: $65,000 – $100,000 USD

Canada: $60,000 – $90,000 CAD


UK: £35,000 Р£55,000 GBP

Germany: ‚ā¨45,000 – ‚ā¨70,000 EUR


Australia: AUD 70,000 – AUD 100,000

New Zealand: NZD 60,000 – NZD 80,000


Nigeria: NGN 2,000,000 – NGN 5,000,000

Kenya: KES 1,500,000 – KES 3,500,000

South Africa: ZAR 300,000 – ZAR 600,000

South America:

Argentina: ARS 800,000 – ARS 1,500,000

Brazil: BRL 80,000 – BRL 150,000

Southeast Asia:

India: INR 500,000 – INR 1,500,000

Singapore: SGD 60,000 – SGD 100,000

These figures are meant to provide a general idea of the salary range for animal geneticists in different regions.

Can an Animal Geneticist be promoted?

The career progression for an animal geneticist typically involves advancement through different levels, with increasing responsibilities and often requiring additional education or certifications. Here are the prominent promotion levels for an animal geneticist, highlighting aspects related to education, responsibilities, and certifications:

Entry-Level Animal Geneticist


Bachelor’s degree in Animal Science, Genetics, Biology, or a related field. Coursework in genetics, molecular biology, and relevant animal sciences.


Assisting in data collection and analysis. Conducting laboratory work and genetic testing. Supporting senior researchers on projects. Maintaining detailed records of experiments.


No specific certifications are required at this level.

Mid-Level Animal Geneticist


Master’s or Ph.D. in Animal Genetics, Genetics, or a closely related field. Specialised coursework and research in the chosen area of expertise.


Designing and leading research projects. Analysing complex genetic data and interpreting results. Mentoring junior staff and students. Collaborating with other scientists and stakeholders.


Optional certification from relevant professional organisations, such as the American College of Animal Genetics (ACAG) or similar entities in other countries.

Senior/Lead Animal Geneticist


Ph.D. in Animal Genetics or a related field. Extensive postdoctoral research experience. Continued professional development and staying updated on advancements.


Leading and managing research teams. Developing and securing funding for major projects. Establishing collaborations with industry and academia. Publishing research findings in reputable journals.


Optional certifications related to leadership and project management. Continued membership in professional organisations.

Director/Principal Animal Geneticist or Department Head


Ph.D. with a significant track record of research and leadership. Continued engagement in advanced education, workshops, and conferences.


Overseeing entire research programmes or departments. Setting strategic goals for the organisation. Representing the organisation at conferences and industry events. Contributing to policy development and decision-making.


Leadership and management certifications may be beneficial. Continued involvement in professional organisations.

What difficulties can an Animal Geneticist face?

Animal geneticists, like professionals in any field, can encounter various challenges throughout their careers. Some of the challenges specific to the profession of animal geneticists include the following:

Physical Demands:

Fieldwork Challenges:

Animal geneticists involved in fieldwork may face physically demanding conditions, such as challenging terrain, adverse weather, or extended travel.

Laboratory Work:

Extended periods spent in laboratories conducting experiments and analyses may lead to sedentary work conditions, requiring good ergonomics to prevent physical strain.

Safety Concerns (especially from animals):

Animal Handling:

Working with live animals can pose safety risks, especially when dealing with large or unpredictable species. Proper training and safety protocols are essential.

Zoonotic Diseases:

Animal geneticists may be exposed to zoonotic diseases, necessitating adherence to safety measures and precautions.

Variability in Working Conditions:

Diverse Environments:

The working conditions for animal geneticists can vary widely, from laboratory settings to outdoor fieldwork. Adaptability to diverse environments is important.

Emotional Challenges:

Animal Welfare Concerns:

Professionals working with animals may face emotional challenges related to the well-being and ethical treatment of animals.

Conservation Efforts:

Animal geneticists involved in conservation may experience emotional challenges when dealing with endangered species and Biodiversity loss.

Business Management:

Industry Collaboration:

Animal geneticists in the private sector may need to navigate business dynamics, collaborate with industry partners, and meet commercial objectives.

Budget Management:

Those leading research projects or departments may face challenges related to budgeting and resource allocation.

Regulatory Compliance:

Ethical Guidelines:

Animal geneticists must adhere to ethical standards and regulatory guidelines related to the use of animals in research and genetic studies.

Data Protection:

Compliance with data protection regulations is crucial, especially when dealing with sensitive genetic information.

Continuing Education:

Rapid Technological Advancements:

Animal geneticists must stay updated on the latest advancements in genetics and related technologies, requiring continuous learning and professional development.

Unpredictable Work Hours:

Research Demands:

Research projects and fieldwork may require irregular or long working hours, especially during critical phases of data collection or experiments.

Emergency Situations:

Animal geneticists may need to respond to emergencies, such as disease outbreaks or unexpected events in conservation settings.

Global Challenges:

International Collaboration:

Collaboration with researchers, organisations, and regulatory bodies globally may pose challenges related to different legal frameworks, cultural contexts, and logistical considerations.

Public Perception:

Communication Challenges:

Animal geneticists may need to effectively communicate their work to the public, addressing concerns and misconceptions about genetic research and animal breeding.

Navigating these challenges requires a combination of technical expertise, effective communication skills, adaptability, and a commitment to ethical practices in both research and animal care. Continued professional development and a supportive work environment can also contribute to overcoming these challenges in the field of animal genetics.

‚ÄčFuture growth and Possibilities

Projected Annual Growth:

Projections for the annual growth of the animal geneticist job market can vary by region and sector. Factors such as population growth, changing dietary preferences, and advancements in technology will likely contribute to continued demand for expertise in animal genetics.

The demand for professionals in this field may also be influenced by government policies related to agriculture, conservation, and biotechnology.

Trends and Factors Influencing the Animal Geneticist Job Market:

Increased Demand for Sustainable Agriculture:

With a growing global population, there is a rising demand for sustainable and efficient agricultural practices. Animal geneticists play a crucial role in developing breeds with improved traits related to productivity, disease resistance, and environmental adaptability.

Advancements in Genomic Technologies:

Rapid advancements in genomic technologies have expanded the capabilities of animal geneticists. The ability to conduct large-scale genomic analyses and identify specific genes associated with desirable traits has become more accessible.

Focus on Disease Resistance:

There is an increasing emphasis on breeding animals with enhanced resistance to diseases. This is particularly important in agriculture, where disease outbreaks can have significant economic impacts.

Conservation and Biodiversity Efforts:

Animal geneticists involved in wildlife and conservation genetics contribute to efforts aimed at preserving biodiversity and managing captive breeding programmes for endangered species.

Precision Livestock Farming:

The application of precision farming techniques, including genetics, is becoming more widespread. This involves using data-driven technologies to optimise livestock production, improve animal welfare, and minimise environmental impact.

Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering:

Advances in biotechnology, including genetic engineering, present new possibilities for animal geneticists. Techniques such as CRISPR-Cas9 are being explored for precise genetic modifications in animals.

Consumer Awareness and Ethical Concerns:

Increased consumer awareness of ethical considerations in animal breeding practices may influence the industry. Animal geneticists may need to address public concerns related to genetic modifications and animal welfare.

Global Collaborations:

International collaborations in research and conservation efforts continue to grow, providing opportunities for animal geneticists to work on a global scale and contribute to addressing challenges that span borders.

Availability of Jobs


Which Skills and Personality Traits are required by an Animal Geneticist?

Life Skills and Personality Traits

Animal geneticists, like professionals in any scientific field, often share certain personality traits and skills that contribute to their success. While individuals may vary, here are some general personality traits commonly associated with those employed as animal geneticists:

Analytical Thinking:

Animal geneticists excel in analytical thinking, as their work involves interpreting complex genetic data, identifying patterns, and drawing meaningful conclusions.

Curiosity and Inquisitiveness:

A strong sense of curiosity and a passion for understanding the genetic makeup of animals drive animal geneticists to explore new research questions and seek innovative solutions.


Given the precision required in genetic research, animal geneticists tend to be detail-oriented. They pay close attention to experimental protocols, data collection, and analysis.

Critical Thinking:

Critical thinking skills are essential for evaluating research methodologies, interpreting results, and making informed decisions in the dynamic field of animal genetics.

Patience and Persistence:

Genetic research can be time-consuming, and success often requires patience and persistence. Animal geneticists are willing to invest the necessary time to achieve accurate and meaningful results.

Communication Skills:

The ability to communicate complex scientific concepts effectively is crucial. Animal geneticists often need to convey their research findings to colleagues, stakeholders, and the broader scientific community.

Passion for Animals:

A genuine love for animals and a commitment to improving their welfare through genetic research are common traits among animal geneticists.

Ethical Awareness:

Given the ethical considerations in genetic research, including issues related to animal welfare, animal geneticists should possess a strong sense of ethical responsibility and adhere to ethical standards.

Teamwork and Collaboration:

Many animal geneticists work in interdisciplinary teams. Collaboration and teamwork skills are valuable for exchanging ideas, pooling resources, and tackling complex research questions.

Life Skills

Career Skills and Abilities

  • Animal handling‚Äč
  • Handling equipment
  • Basic customer service skills
  • Good health and physical fitness
  • Excellent computer literacy
  • Business knowledge
Career Skills

In terms of skills and traits, in what other positions would Animal Geneticists excel?

Research Scientist:

Conducting cutting-edge research in academic or research institutions to advance the understanding of animal genetics.

Geneticist in Agriculture or Livestock Industry:

Working in the agricultural or livestock sector to improve breeding programs, enhance animal traits, and contribute to sustainable and efficient farming practices.

Conservation Geneticist:

Engaging in wildlife conservation efforts, studying genetic diversity, and contributing to the preservation of endangered species.

Biotechnology Industry:

Applying genetic knowledge in the biotechnology sector, contributing to genetic engineering, gene therapy, or the development of innovative genetic technologies.

Teaching and Academia:

Sharing knowledge with students, mentoring aspiring scientists, and contributing to academic research in universities or colleges.

Government and Regulatory Agencies:

Working in agencies overseeing genetic research, ensuring compliance with ethical standards, and contributing to policy development related to animal genetics.

Veterinary Genetics:

Applying genetic knowledge to diagnose and treat genetic disorders in animals, contributing to veterinary research and diagnostics.

Individual strengths and skills may guide animal geneticists toward specific roles within these broad categories.

Additionally, staying adaptable and embracing ongoing learning is crucial in a field as dynamic as animal genetics.

With what kind of tools and technology does an Animal Geneticist work?

Animal geneticists utilize a variety of tools and technologies to conduct research, analyze genetic data, and contribute to advancements in the field. The specific tools and technologies used may vary depending on the nature of the research, the species under study, and the goals of the genetic analysis. Here are some common tools and technologies employed by animal geneticists:

DNA Sequencers:

High-throughput DNA sequencers are essential for determining the sequence of nucleotides in DNA samples. This technology allows researchers to analyze the genetic code and identify variations.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Machines:

PCR machines are used to amplify specific DNA sequences. This technique is crucial for generating sufficient quantities of DNA for further analysis, including sequencing and genotyping.

Gel Electrophoresis:

Gel electrophoresis is a technique used to separate and analyze DNA fragments based on their size. It helps visualize DNA bands and confirm the success of PCR reactions.

Genotyping Arrays:

Genotyping arrays are microarrays containing DNA probes that can identify specific genetic variations. Animal geneticists use these arrays to analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other genetic markers.

Bioinformatics Tools:

Various bioinformatics software and tools are employed for the analysis and interpretation of genetic data. This includes tools for sequence alignment, variant calling, and statistical analysis.

Genome Editing Tools:

CRISPR-Cas9 and other genome editing tools enable targeted modification of specific genes. Animal geneticists may use these tools for functional genomics studies or to create genetically modified organisms.

Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) Platforms:

NGS platforms, such as Illumina and Oxford Nanopore, enable high-throughput sequencing of DNA. These platforms are valuable for whole-genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis.

Microsatellite Markers:

Microsatellites are short, repetitive DNA sequences used as genetic markers. Animal geneticists use these markers for population genetics studies and parentage testing.

Genetic Databases:

Access to genetic databases, such as GenBank, Ensembl, and others, provides valuable reference data for comparing and annotating genetic sequences.

Laboratory Equipment:

Standard laboratory equipment, including pipettes, centrifuges, thermocyclers, and DNA extraction kits, are used for routine experimental procedures.

Statistical Software:

Statistical software, such as R or SAS, is employed for data analysis and interpretation. Animal geneticists use statistical methods to draw conclusions from genetic data.

Animal Tracking and Monitoring Devices:

In field studies, animal geneticists may use tracking devices, such as GPS collars, to monitor the movement and behavior of animals.

Gene Expression Analysis Tools:

Techniques like quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) are used to analyze gene expression levels in different tissues and under various conditions.

Imaging Technologies:

Imaging technologies, including fluorescence microscopy and imaging flow cytometry, may be used for visualizing genetic material and studying cellular processes.

Lab Information Management Systems (LIMS):

LIMS helps manage and organize data generated in the laboratory, ensuring efficient tracking and analysis of genetic samples.

Laboratory Automation:

Automated systems for DNA extraction, sample preparation, and liquid handling contribute to increased efficiency and reproducibility in genetic research.

The field of animal genetics is dynamic, and advancements in technology continually shape the tools available to researchers. Animal geneticists often combine multiple tools and technologies to conduct comprehensive genetic studies, contributing to a deeper understanding of genetic diversity, traits, and inheritance patterns in animals.

Which Subjects must I have at School to prepare for this career?

The subjects you choose at school are important as they lay the foundation for further studies at college or university. While still at school, it’s also important to learn more about the animals you will work with, as well as gain some experience.

OZT has a list of various tertiary institutions where you can study further, after school. Each of these institutions also have their own Group page on OZT where you will find the exact subjects they require of you to have passed in school. Keep these requirements in mind, and discuss it with your school, guidance counselor and parents to ensure that you are prepared!

What will I need to Study to become an Animal Geneticist?

Minimum Requirements

A minimum of a bachelor’s degree in a relevant field is typically required. Common majors include animal science, genetics, biology, or a related discipline.

Study Focus

Subjects for Further Study:


Courses covering the fundamentals of genetics, including principles of inheritance, molecular genetics, and population genetics.

Animal Science:

Subjects providing a comprehensive understanding of animal biology, physiology, and husbandry practices.


Understanding the biochemical processes underlying genetic expression and molecular biology.


Courses in statistical methods and data analysis are crucial for interpreting genetic data.

Molecular Biology:

In-depth study of molecular biology techniques used in genetic research.

Advanced Studies (if necessary):

Master’s Degree (M.Sc.):

Pursuing a master’s degree in Animal Genetics, Genetics, or a related field provides advanced knowledge and research opportunities.

Ph.D. (Doctorate):

For those interested in research, teaching, or leadership roles, a Ph.D. in Animal Genetics or a closely related field is often pursued.

Optional Short Courses:

Advanced Genetics Workshops:

Short courses focused on specific topics within genetics, such as genomics, molecular techniques, or genome editing.

Biostatistics Short Courses:

Specialised courses in biostatistics to enhance statistical skills for genetic data analysis.

Ethics in Genetics:

Short courses or workshops on ethical considerations in genetic research are especially relevant for those working in emerging fields like genetic engineering.

Animal Breeding Programmes:

Courses or workshops on animal breeding programmes and methodologies.

Data Analysis with Bioinformatics Tools:

Short courses on utilising bioinformatics tools for the analysis of genetic data.

Communication Skills:

Courses focusing on effective communication, scientific writing, and presentation skills are valuable for disseminating research findings.

Study Duration

The duration of College and Bachelor’s Degrees can be up to 3 or 4 years. Short Courses are usually between a few weeks and a year.

Possible Career Preparation Paths

If this is your dream career that you want to pursue, then it’s important to plan the way forward.

Why is planning important?

‚ÄčTo ensure that you understand the requirements for your career, and that you are always prepared for the next step on the road towards your dream. A preparation path is like a road map to where you want to be.

Possible Paths:

1. Attend Career Guidance Sessions:

Attend career guidance sessions at school to learn about various career options, including animal genetics. Seek advice from career counsellors and professionals in the field.

2. Research all Possible Careers:

Conduct thorough research on careers in animal genetics, exploring different specialisations within the field, potential job roles, and industries.

3. Explore Educational Paths:

Research the educational paths required for a career in animal genetics, including the relevant degrees and potential areas of specialisation.

4. Align High School Subjects with Educational Path:

Choose high school subjects that align with the educational prerequisites for animal genetics, including biology, chemistry, mathematics, and potentially physics.

5. Obtain a High School Diploma or Equivalent:

Focus on academic excellence to obtain a high school diploma or equivalent qualification.

6. Learn about Animals:

Gain knowledge about different animal species, breeds, and their characteristics. Understand the basics of animal biology and behaviour.

7. Align Post-School Path:

Decide whether to enter the job market directly after high school, pursue further studies at a university or college, or explore entrepreneurship.

8. Gain Experience:

Seek opportunities for volunteering, internships, or mentorship in relevant fields such as veterinary clinics, research labs, or animal care facilities.

9. Pursue Extracurricular Activities:

Engage in extracurricular activities related to biology, genetics, or animal science. Consider joining science clubs, participating in science fairs, or taking part in relevant competitions.

10. Join Professional Associations:

Join professional associations like the American College of Animal Genetics (ACAG) or other regional associations to connect with professionals in the field.

11. Gain specialised Skills:

Acquire specialised skills related to animal genetics, molecular biology techniques, and laboratory procedures. Consider short courses or workshops.

12. Network with Professionals:

Network with professionals, professors, and researchers in the field. Attend conferences, workshops, or seminars to establish connections.

13. Enter the Job Market, Finish Tertiary Studies, or Launch a Business:

Depending on the chosen path, enter the job market with relevant qualifications, pursue tertiary studies (e.g., a bachelor’s degree), or explore entrepreneurship.

14. Stay Updated and Pursue Continuing Education:

Stay informed about advancements in animal genetics through continuous learning. Pursue postgraduate studies if desired and stay updated on industry trends.

Possible Combined Career Paths

It is possible to sometimes combine two or more related careers. This normally happens when you study and practice a specific main career, but the knowledge and experience gained also help you to have a paying hobby or secondary income career.

Possible Alternatives (there are a lot more):

Training and apprenticeship

On-the-job training and apprenticeship requirements for animal geneticists can vary depending on the specific job, industry, and employer. Here are some general guidelines for individuals entering an animal geneticist career:

Educational Background:

Animal geneticists typically need a bachelor’s degree in a relevant field such as Animal Science, Genetics, Biology, or a closely related discipline.

On-the-Job Training:

Laboratory Techniques:

Training in laboratory techniques specific to genetic research, including DNA extraction, PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), gel electrophoresis, and other molecular biology methods.

Data Analysis:

Learning to use software tools for genetic data analysis and statistical analysis.


Familiarisation with equipment used in genetic research, such as DNA sequencers and gene expression analyzers.

Apprenticeship or Research Assistant Positions:

Research Assistant Role:

Many individuals entering the field start as research assistants, working under the guidance of experienced scientists and researchers.


Seek internships or apprenticeships in laboratories, research institutions, or industry settings to gain hands-on experience.

Skills Development:

Communication Skills:

Developing effective communication skills, both written and verbal, to convey research findings, collaborate with team members, and potentially communicate with the public.


Cultivating problem-solving skills to address challenges in experimental design, data analysis, and interpretation.

Continued Education:

Animal geneticists often engage in continued education, attending workshops, conferences, and training programmes to stay updated on the latest advancements in the field.


Building professional networks involves participating in scientific conferences and seminars and joining relevant professional organisations. Networking can provide opportunities for mentorship and collaboration.

Certifications (optional):

While not always mandatory, some individuals choose to pursue certifications relevant to their specific area of focus or industry. For example, certifications in specific laboratory techniques or bioinformatics tools.

Industry-Specific Training:

Depending on the sector (e.g., agriculture, biotechnology, conservation), individuals may need specialised training relevant to the industry’s specific demands and protocols.


Seek mentorship from experienced animal geneticists or researchers. Mentorship can provide valuable guidance, advice, and insights into navigating the field.

Publication and Presentation Skills:

As individuals progress in their careers, developing skills related to scientific writing, publication, and presentation of research findings becomes increasingly important.

Regulatory Compliance:

Understanding and training in regulatory compliance, particularly if working in areas that involve ethical considerations or working with animals.

It’s important to note that the specific training requirements can vary based on the individual’s career goals, the nature of the position, and the industry in which they work. Some animal geneticists may opt for advanced degrees (master’s or Ph.D.), while others may gain specialised skills through on-the-job experiences and professional development.

Average level of education of all the people who enter the career

High School Certificate 0%
Diploma or Short Courses 0%
Degree or Higher Studies 0%

Licenses, Certificate, Registration and Professional Associations

There are generally no specific licences or certifications required to work as an animal geneticist. However, it’s important to note that specific requirements may vary depending on the country, state, or region, and the nature of the work being conducted. Here are some considerations:

Optional Certifications:

While not mandatory, some individuals choose to obtain certifications to demonstrate expertise in specific areas of genetics or laboratory techniques. For example, certifications related to molecular biology techniques, laboratory safety, or specific genetic technologies.

Ethical and Regulatory Compliance:

Adhere to ethical guidelines and regulatory requirements related to the use of animals in research. This includes obtaining the necessary approvals and permits from relevant ethical review boards and animal care committees.

Legal Compliance:

Ensure compliance with local and national laws related to genetic research, animal welfare, and laboratory practices.

International Regulations (if applicable):

Individuals involved in international research or collaborations should be aware of and adhere to international regulations governing genetic research and the transportation of genetic materials.

Laboratory Safety Training:

If working in a laboratory setting, adhere to safety protocols and undergo the necessary training in laboratory safety.

Animal Breeding Certifications (if applicable):

For those involved in animal breeding programmes, certifications or memberships related to specific breeds or breeding associations may be beneficial.

Research Permits (if applicable):

Obtain any required permits for conducting research in specific environments, especially if working in conservation genetics or with wildlife.

Professional Associations

American College of Animal Genetics (ACAG):

International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG):

European Federation of Animal Science (EAAP):

Genetics Society of America (GSA):

Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine (SEBM) – Animal Genetics Section:

International Society for Wildlife Genetics (ISWG):

World Association for Animal Production (WAAP):

Australian Society of Animal Production (ASAP):

Canadian Society of Animal Science (CSAS):

African Society of Animal Production (ASAP):

Where can I study further?

All of the above information will help you understand more about the Career, including the fact that there are different paths to take to reach it. But if you are almost done with High School (Grades 11 or 12), you also need to start thinking about further studies, and WHERE you will study.

See the List of Universities, Colleges and Online Training Academies who offer courses towards statistics and laboratory procedures.

How do I start to prepare for this Career?

If you do decide on following this career, then OZT can assist you in gaining knowledge about the career and the animals you will be working with. We do this by offering you thousands of FREE short courses.

A. You can access the specialised study guide that fits in with the above preparation path

B.  If you are still uncertain about choosing this career, then have a look at our special series of WHAT NEXT courses. They take you through all of the questions you might have on how to choose the right career, what to do while and after school, and even how to start your own business.

C.  Or, join OZT as a member to access easy-to-use lists of courses to make your career preparation as smooth as possible! And yes, membership is always free.

Join the OZT online community for special access to more tools!

Join us as a special member and learn more about becoming an animal geneticist.

Members of the Platform have special access to:

  • Info on the best places where you can study (colleges, universities and online)
  • Expertly designed¬†advice to prepare you for the career, and links to places where you can gain valuable experience. For some career experience is necessary, otherwise you wont get the job!
  • Top notch info¬†on each of the different species you will work with
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If you have decided on being an Animal Geneticist, please click on the JOIN GROUP button. Members will be directed to the Group, while non-members will be assisted to register first.

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Some of the best websites to help you decide on a career are:

  1. Animal Genetics, Inc.:

    • Website: Animal Genetics, Inc.
    • Description: Animal Genetics, Inc. is a leading provider of genetic testing services for animals. They offer a range of DNA testing services for various species, including dogs, cats, horses, and livestock. The website provides information on available tests, genetic services, and educational resources.
  2. International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG):

    • Website: ISAG
    • Description: The International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) is a global organization dedicated to advancing research and knowledge in animal genetics. The website provides information on conferences, publications, and resources related to animal genetics. It serves as a hub for professionals and researchers in the field.
  3. Animal Genetics and Genomics Group – Wageningen University & Research:

    • Website: Wageningen University – Animal Genetics and Genomics Group
    • Description: This website belongs to the Animal Genetics and Genomics Group at Wageningen University & Research in the Netherlands. It offers information on research, projects, and publications related to animal genetics. It serves as a valuable resource for those interested in academic perspectives on the subject.

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